A republic (from Latin:res publica) is a sovereign state or country which is organised with a form of government in which power resides in elected individuals representing the citizen body and government leaders exercise power according to the rule of law. In modern times, the definition of a republic is commonly limited to a government which excludes a monarch. Currently, 147 of the world's 206 sovereign states use the word "republic" as part of their official names; not all of these are republics in the sense of having elected governments, nor do all nations with elected governments use the word "republic" in their names.
Both modern and ancient republics vary widely in their ideology and composition. In the classical and medieval period of Europe, many states were fashioned on the Roman Republic, which referred to the governance of the city of Rome, between it having kings and emperors. The Italian medieval and Renaissance political tradition, today referred to as "civic humanism", is sometimes considered to derive directly from Roman republicans such as Sallust and Tacitus. However, Greek-influenced Roman authors, such as Polybius and Cicero, sometimes also used the term as a translation for the Greek politeia which could mean regime generally, but could also be applied to certain specific types of regime which did not exactly correspond to that of the Roman Republic. Republics were not equated with classical democracies such as Athens, but had a democratic aspect.
De re publica (On the Commonwealth; see below) is a dialogue on Roman politics by Cicero, written in six books between 54 and 51 BC. It is written in the format of a Socratic dialogue in which Scipio Africanus Minor (who had died a few decades before Cicero was born, several centuries after Socrates' death) takes the role of a wise old man — a typical feature of the genre. Cicero's treatise was politically controversial: by choosing the format of a philosophical dialogue he avoided naming his political adversaries directly. By employing various speakers to raise differing opinions, Cicero not only remained true to his favored skeptical method of setting opposing arguments against one another (see, e.g., Carneades), but also made it more difficult for his adversaries to take him to task on what he had written.
Setting and dramatis personæ
The dialogue is portrayed as taking place in Scipio's estate, during three consecutive days. Each day is described in two books, with an introduction by Cicero preceding the dialogue of each book. A large part of the last book (the sixth) is taken by Scipio telling a dream he had: this passage is known as Somnium Scipionis, or "Scipio's dream".
A struggle to fill office space at the new building opposite the Gateway at Millbrae Station led developers to ask city officials to allow it to pivot to biotech, which was granted by the Planning Commission late last month ...RepublicUrban considered the issue and plans to have the biotech labs facing the parking garage, she said.
Further, Prestige Biotech has no California address, and addresses for its authorized agents turned out to be empty or in China... And if the US has such gaps, Taiwan, with its heavy penetration by People’s Republic of China (PRC) agents and large numbers of small biomedical and biotech firms, surely plays host to similar firms.
PROLIFIC is a non-profit consortium of top-tier research institutions, academic medical centers, and pharmaceutical and biotech companies that are committed to developing treatments for pulmonary fibrosis ...Bridge Biotherapeutics Inc., based in the Republic of Korea and the U.S., is a publicly-traded, clinical-stage biotech company founded in 2015.
Orgenesis announces collaboration agreement with SCTbio to expand POCare sites in the CzechRepublic and enhance capabilities for the production of lentivirus vectors ...Germantown, Maryland, US and Prague, Czech Republic – May 18, 2023 – Orgenesis Inc ... Orgenesis is a global biotech ...
And a lot of our trade is in pharmaceuticals, in marine products, in two and three-wheelers, in iron and steel, in gold and in paper and paper products.”He also noted that there are a few Indian companies like Glenmark Pharmaceuticals, Hetero, Caplin Point and Flagship Biotech that have already established offices in the Dominican Republic.